What is kyphosis?
Kyphosis is an abnormal condition of the neck in the upper back. This disease is relatively common and often occurs in young or old age.
It is normal to have a small curve in the upper back. Kyphosis is an excessive and abnormal curve in the spine that can cause discomfort and persistent pain throughout the body. Poor posture, abnormalities in the spine, or age-related muscle weakness can cause kyphosis.
In this article, we review the symptoms, causes and treatments of kyphosis. There are also some exercises to help treat the disease.

Symptoms of kyphosis or dorsal hump
In mild cases, the curve of the spine is not significant. In other cases, the person may appear to be leaning forward.
Kyphosis often occurs without any particular symptoms. But general symptoms can include the following:
• backache
• Stiffness and inflexibility in the upper back
• Rounding the back
• Stiffening of the hamstrings
What causes kyphosis?
The spine consists of sections called vertebrae that are stacked on top of each other. The arrangement and function of this structure in the body is unparalleled and allows the spine to be supported as well as flexible. It also means that the spine is exclusively vulnerable to injury and pressure.
Kyphosis occurs when the vertebrae in the upper back, called the thoracic region, form a triangular prism. This causes the spine to bend forward more than usual.
This curvature can be due to the following reasons:
• Poor position and poor posture
• Growth problems (growth retardation and growth problems)
• agedness
• Abnormal shape of the beads
• mild fractures or fractures that cause the vertebrae to compress
• Irritable spinal arthritis
• Ankylosing spondylitis
• Spine infection
• Muscular "dystrophy"
• Spinal tumor

Who gets kyphosis?
Kyphosis is a relatively common disease that usually affects the limbs of young people and adults. Some types of kyphosis can develop from birth, but this type of kyphosis is rare.
Poor posture is a risk factor for some types of kyphosis. This means that kyphosis is more likely to occur in people who have a poor posture for long periods of time (such as the posture for most of the computer tasks).

Types of kyphosis abnormalities
There are several types of kyphosis, including:
Posterior or postural kyphosis is the most common type of kyphosis. It often occurs in adolescents when the surrounding spine and surrounding muscles are growing abnormally. This disease can be the result of being in a bad physical condition. Posterior kyphosis usually occurs in adolescents and is more common in girls than boys. In most cases, this type of kyphosis can be corrected with physical therapy and exercise and does not require medical treatment.
Scheuermann kyphosis also occurs in adulthood, but can be more severe than posterior kyphosis. Doctors generally do not know what causes this form of kyphosis. X-rays are needed to diagnose this type of disease, but doctors are not sure why it occurs. Scheuermann's kyphosis can often be treated with physiotherapy and weak medications. Brass treatment is recommended if the patient is still growing and measuring a 45-degree curve in the spine. If Kyphotic spine curves measure more than 75 degrees, they may need surgery to treat the deformity and stabilize the spine.
Congenital kyphosis occurs when the spine does not form properly in the uterus, causing kyphosis at birth. This type of disease may get worse quickly with age. Surgery is usually performed when kyphosis affects the baby and helps treat the disorder before it gets worse.
Structural kyphosis is a type of kyphosis that is not related to an abnormal posture or curvature when standing or sitting. Patients with structural kyphosis are unable to consciously change their position to normalize the spine. Patients may find that they are unable to stand, and symptoms may worsen over the time.
"Hyper" kyphosis also occurs due to other spinal problems that contribute to kyphosis larger than the spine. This type of disease can often be a "degenerative disc" secondary disease of the disc because asymmetric loading in the disc space changes the structural alignment of the spine. It also occurs during osteoporosis or spinal cord fractures or possibly after surgery.

What are the side effects of kyphosis?
Complications of kyphosis may occur in more severe cases. These side effects include the following:
• An irreversible hump or dorsal hump on the back
• Persistent back pain
• Weakness or numbness in the arms and legs
• Respiratory problems
• Loss of bladder control

Diagnosis of kyphosis
A doctor will perform a physical exam to diagnose kyphosis.
The doctor diagnoses kyphosis by performing a physical examination and evaluating the person's medical records.
Your doctor may ask you to do several exercises or stretching exercises to determine the effect on your balance and range of motion.
Another common test to diagnose the disease is to lie on a flat surface and have a doctor examine your spine. If the spine is flat, this indicates that the back muscles are flexible and that the cause of the disease is likely to be an awkward position. If the spine remains curved, it is most likely another type of kyphosis.
Your doctor may use X-rays to look at the structure of your vertebrae. In more severe cases, your doctor may order other tests, such as, a blood test or a lung function test.
Does kyphosis need treatment?
A spine specialist can determine if your kyphosis needs treatment. The evaluation includes your medical and family records, an in-depth physical and neurological examination, and imaging tests. An orthopedic spine surgeon or neurosurgeon may order standing x-rays, CT scans, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to fully evaluate kyphosis. If previous imaging studies of kyphosis are available, the spine specialist will compare older images with new ones.
Imaging studies are used to measure the size or angle of kyphosis. Previous imaging studies can give you information about the size of the curve and answer the question: "Is the growing curve larger than the previous sample?"
In addition, body balance, ability to stand, and symptoms are potential indicators that may indicate non-surgical or recommended treatment. Other tests may include a blood test, a lung function test (measuring lung capacity), and a bone mineral density test.

Treatment of kyphosis or dorsal hump disease
If possible, the treatment will focus on preventing the curve or hump from getting worse and repairing the current condition.
Treatment of kyphosis depends on the type and severity of the curve. Physicians perform physical examinations and examine the type and severity of kyphosis to select the best treatment.
Treatment options for kyphosis vary depending on a number of factors, including the patient's age, the potential for bone growth, the size of the curvature, the symptoms the patients experience, and every major cause of kyphosis. Usually, non-surgical procedures in the first stage include physiotherapy of the spine and sports movements with a focus on improving the general condition of the body, flexibility and strengthening the muscles around the spine.

Treatment of kyphosis, without surgery
Doctors may recommend brace therapy for Scheuermann kyphosis.
Often this treatment includes physiotherapy to strengthen the muscles of the back and abdomen. This reduces the pressure on the spine and helps improve the condition of the body, while reduces discomfort and pain.

Doctors usually recommend that people with posterior kyphosis and Scheuerman receive non-surgical treatment.
In some cases of Scheuermann's kyphosis, your doctor may recommend a spinal brace. The brace supports the spine to keep it upright. Brace is only useful if the spine is still growing.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can help reduce any discomfort caused by kyphosis.
For those who need a brace, a thoracolumbar brace (TLSO) and a Boston brace are often recommended. This lightweight option is suitable for treating the disease and fits in the patient's body to be able to provide a proper pressure in specific areas of the disease. This type of brace can be worn under clothes and patients are still able to participate in sports and other activities. 

Surgical treatment for kyphosis
People with congenital kyphosis or severe forms of posterior kyphosis or Scheuerman who have not responded to treatment may benefit from surgery to improve the disease.
The type of surgery varies from person to person. A common type of kyphosis surgery is spinal fusion. This type of treatment involves welding several vertebrae together to form part of the bone.
Other surgical procedures for severe kyphosis include the placement of rods, metal screws, and plates in the spine. This treatment helps stabilize the spine and increase the fusion rate of the bone graft. This treatment can reduce the curvature of the upper spine and make it straight.

Therapeutic exercises and corrective movements related to kyphosis
A physiotherapist can recommend exercises and stretches to strengthen the back and abdominal muscles, such as:
• Knee rotation
Lie on the floor, bend your knees and keep your legs parallel to the ground.
Gently bring your knees to one side so that your back feels involved.
Repeat at least five times on each side of the body.

• Pelvic rotation
Lie on the floor, bend your knees and keep your legs parallel to the ground.
Gently arch your back, keeping your hips and upper back on the floor.
Hold the arc for a few seconds before returning to a perfectly flat position.
Repeat at least five times.

Stretch the knee to the chest
Lie down in the same position as the previous two exercises, with one knee facing the chest.
Wrap your arms around your knees and gently bring your knees close to your chest.
Hold this position for a few seconds, then release.
Repeat at least 5 times on each leg.

When to see a doctor for kyphosis?
In cases where the spine is significantly bent, it is necessary to see a doctor. However, not all cases of kyphosis have significant symptoms. In such cases, look for the following:
• Persistent back pain
• Stiffness and inflexibility of the back
• Stiffness in the hamstrings
• Symptoms of fever
• Respiratory problems
Symptoms of the disease also include fatigue, mild back pain, neck appearance, spinal tenderness or stiffness. In more severe cases, patients report shortness of breath, chest discomfort or pain, numbness, weakness, or tingling in the legs.

Prevent dorsal hump disease
Sometimes people prevent kyphosis by maintaining a good posture and maintaining a healthy back. Tips for preventing kyphosis include the following:
• Exercise regularly
• Avoid bending or crouching
• When using a desk or computer, use orthopedic equipment (to maintain normal bone position).
• Use well-designed backpacks that spread the weight evenly on the back.

Summary of kyphosis
Kyphosis is a condition in which the upper back becomes bent and hunched due to the presence of a curved and abnormal spine.
There are different types of kyphosis that have different causes. A common and preventable cause is poor posture when sitting, walking and standing.

What is kyphosis?
In more severe cases, your doctor may recommend surgery to correct the person's posture. If left untreated, the disease can cause serious damage to the spine and other areas of the body.
The best ways to prevent kyphosis include maintaining a good posture. Proper nutrition and weight loss are also effective in treating the disease.

Which specialist diagnoses and treats kyphosis?
A manual physiotherapist (therapists who use their hands) can use treatment options to correct kyphosis and restore your good physical condition. Spinal surgeons also help patients with kyphosis.
Bone and brain specialists are effective in treating and diagnosing the disease. Lumbar and spinal disc surgeons and rehabilitation centers treat and diagnose dorsal hump disease.

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